An Evaluation of Circuit Television Cameras in Crime Management: A case Study of Nairobi Central Business District

Abstract
The study focused on the effectiveness of Closed Circuit Television Cameras (CCTV) in Urban Crime Management in the Central Business District (CBD) of Nairobi. The objective of the study was to explore the extent and effectiveness of CCTV Cameras in alleviating insecurity within Nairobi Central Business District.

The theoretical framework looked into the location theory, routine activities theory, situation crime prevention theory and crime prevention through environmental design to understand how crime manifests itself and crime prevention measures adopted. The conceptual framework looked into the Location, Institutional Framework, Resources, Government Policy, Societal value systems, Community participation and Integrated Centralized Surveillance System that makes CCTV system effective in an urban environment.

The Methodology used involved CCTV observation, Stratified random sampling of four Strata namely; Institutions/Businesses, Hotels, Supermarkets and Small Business Enterprise using CCTV Cameras. Interviews Schedule was used to interview Administrators, ICT Experts in installation of CCTV Cameras, Law Enforcement agents and urban planners from City Council of Nairobi.
The study found out that 92.9% of the total respondents had installed CCTV cameras inside the buildings to offer surveillance inside the buildings. Those connected outside are mainly used to monitor traffic with a few located in strategic areas for crime prevention. 85.7% of the respondents indicated that CCTV cameras were effective where installed and location and coverage of cameras being a critical component.

The study recommends the installation of CCTV cameras on the streets for crime prevention. There is also the need to involve all stakeholders including community participation to ensure project sustainability. Finally there is an urgent need for the government to come up with policy guidelines which sets out standards and conditions to be adopted in the operation of CCTV cameras schemes.