Investigation into the encroachment of riparian reserves by informal settlements. Case study of Nairobi River

Many developing countries are facing the challenge of uncontrolled housing developments. This
study seeks to look at the effects of such uncontrolled housing developments in Umoja
Innercore which is part of the wider Umoja Estate which also consists of Umoja 1 and Umoja 2
estates. Umoja Innercore has seen a steady increase in the population as developers in the
area sought to maximize their returns on the land that was available to them, by developing
highrise rental residential houses. This had the inadvertent effect of increasing the area’s
population and hence overstretching the areas’ physical and social infrastructure.
The study’s objectives were to demonstrate how socio-economic factors of residents contribute
to uncontrolled developments in Umoja Innercore estate, to find out what measures have been
put in place to monitor and regulate the developments, to find out what public services are
offered and are accessible, and to find out the efficiency of service delivery in Umoja Innercore.
These were deemed crucial in order to sufficiently and sustainably mitigate the negative effects
of these uncontrolled housing developments.
In order to understand the problem, literature review was done to find out the causes of
uncontrolled developments as researched by other researchers. Literature review was also
done to find out the existing planning and building policies, the legal and institutional framework
that influence or are supposed to influence the developments in Umoja Innercore.
Having a clear understanding of the challenges of uncontrolled developments, the study set an
appropriate research methodology that helped gather data that would be unbiased and
representative of the Umoja Innercore’s challenges and strengths. It also set appropriate
methods of data analysis so as to effectively analyse the data collected. It then set proper
methods of presentation including maps, photographs figures and charts that would make the
data analysed easy to comprehend.
The study revealed that Umoja Innercore was developed on a site and service scheme.
However, the available physical and social infrastructure was no longer sufficient to cater for the
increased population, land use conflicts were common due to the lack of proper