Crime and personal safety continue to be issues of public concern all over the continent and the world as well and this has led to holding of a series of security forums and meetings to curb the situation that is really worrying. Causes of crime and vandalism are complex but it is widely believed that environmental factors do greatly play a role in causing and controlling level of security. Within the built environment Planning and design should put into consideration human behavior and basic needs to ensure positive interaction among residents and the built environment. Any Future development and redevelopment, must take into consideration, inter-relationships between people and the built environment in which they reside in that are essential to positive use. This will result in a reduction in crime and the fear of crime, an improvement in residents’ safety, and the creation of a sense of community ownership. A Successful crime prevention strategy often depends on a wide range of measures involving several agencies and institutions. Planning system is one of the agencies that should be involved to ensure a successful crime prevention strategy.
This research project seeks to identify causes of insecurity within urban residential neighborhoods. Ngumba estate has been taken for study as since it was fist built in 1972, there has been change in density due to its change in form increasing the population unlike it was planned for to accommodate low population, and its unique feature of being the only residential unit located between an area that has characteristics of an industrial area and its surrounding served by community facilities like the mother of apostles seminary and Moi sports center Kasarani making the estate an island like estate which should have been misplaced. This
facilities and increase in population density has led to residents witness increased insecurity. Objectives identified, leads to determining, the types, nature and location of crimes, effect of the layout of the site and buildings on visibility of the street and parking areas, paths and walkways, relationship between different land uses and crime and ways of enhancing security in the study area. Within the research project are ways and steps followed to ensure that research was undertaken to its completion and help get useful information.
Literature review section has analyzed several theoretical orientation on crime, relationships between crime occurrence and population, Crime and Physical Environment which looked in to CPTED principles, issues on how mixed land uses affect crime , types of urban crime and their causes, institutional frameworks, Johannesburg case study and its neighborhoods and a conceptual framework for the area of study. The field study undertaken revealed that the types of crimes present in Ngumba include burglary being ranked the highest, mugging, rape and robbery with violence. Residents feel that crime occurrence within the neighborhood is greatly influenced by neighbourhoods layout with issues such as mixed housing typologies contributing to crime occurrence, ,unobserved building alignment, private and public land which is not clearly defined hence no clear ownership, narrow access paths and scattered business premises which attracted intruders. Uncontrolled residential developments which led to dead ends, unmaintained vegetation which has become criminals hide outs, increased residential population hence little sense of ownership to properties consequently minimal responsibility among residents and lack of security lights have also contributed to decline in security.
The respondents proposed increasing gating, lighting up the estate, putting up a complete perimeter wall to ensure only on access exit point is used and landscaping of the estate to increase surveillance so as to help curb the identified crime issues hence a safe and humble environment.



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