Provision of Pedestrian Transport Facilities in Nairobi City. The Case of Jogoo Corridor.

The influence of the car in the expansion of cities, however, has not satisfied the need for travel especially in third world/developing nations including Kenya where the majority (over 64%) of urban dwellers live below the poverty line. For example, over 60% of urban dwellers in Nairobi still walk to work, thus justifying the need for the provision of pedestrian transport facilities to serve the needs of urban dwellers (Obiero 1992, Omwenga et al 1994, Kasuku 1995).

This research recognizes the role played by pedestrian mode of transport in the functioning of various urban activities ranging from industrial production, development of the informal sector, institutions, commerce, and residential areas among others. The study recognized the fact that increased and rapid urban population growth coupled with high level of urban poverty, poor/lacking urban services, poor urban management and unrealistic transport planning that has not responded to the needs of urban population has resulted to poor/non-provision of pedestrian transport facilities in urban areas. Despite the fact that Jogoo corridor is predominantly occupied by low income population whose 62% earn less that 3000.00 per month, and 64% are captive in pedestrian mode, there existed problems as; poor infrastructure and route networks, conflict with motor traffic, conflict with utilities, conflict with other users, existence of barriers and insecurity among others which hinder optional exploitation of walking as an alternative mode of urban movement.

The present research set out three objectives to: (i) Assess the provision of pedestrian transport facilities within Jogoo corridor, (ii) Assess the utilization levels of existing pedestrian transport facilities within Jogoo corridor, and (iii) Institute indicative spatial planning interventions which will facilitate the optimal provision of pedestrian transport facilities within Jogoo corridor and other similar areas in urban set ups. The present research therefore aimed at evolving an indicative pedestrian system that is properly integrated with land use and other transport modes. The objectives were guided by two hypothetical principles which stated that utilization levels of pedestrian transport facilities are optimized when integrated with: (i) other transport modes; and (ii) Land use.

The study assumed that: (i) population within Jogoo corridor will go up, (ii) there will be pressure for urban renewal in the corridor owing to the age of the current Nairobi city plan, (iii) traffic will go up and that (iv) there will be increased demand for the provision of pedestrian transport facilities that are integrated with land use and other transport modes within and beyond the corridor. The research employed both primary (Household survey, origin-destination survey, transport facilities inventory survey, observation, key informants, photography and mapping) and secondary data sourcing methods.

Quantitative and qualitative analytical methods were used. Relevant literature were reviewed in the areas of transport trip generating factors, modal split, infrastructure planning/modeling, design and networking, population, utilization levels, environmental degradation and pedestrianization were reviewed to give insight into integrative accessibility transport planning. Case studies showed that the provision of pedestrian transport needs like any other modes of transport is based on population, modal split, trip assignment, trip distribution, among other trip generating factors, and requires modeling for optimal provision.

Review of existing institutional, legal and policy frameworks showed that there exist missing links which hinder optimal provision and utilization of pedestrian transport facilities. For example, local authorities lack institutional capacities to undertake plan preparation, implementation and development control, while existing policies and planning frameworks do not attend to the special needs of pedestrians. Pedestrian movement as a mode of urban travel only started receiving attention less than a decade ago, while the planning and design for pedestrian transport facilities are done as part of motorways development such that if there is no motorway, then there is no pedestrian (and other NMT) facilities. From legislation, several (Acts of Parliament) among other laws lack harmony in dealing with transport issues, especially NMTS. The present research revealed mat 92.6% of pedestrians are within the productive age of 18 - 55 years, which is involved in the production process within the urban economy. Over 73.4% are low-income earners, 98% had no vehicle ownership, while 79.7% are captive in the pedestrian mode as a result of poverty. Problems of pedestrians recorded ranged from pollution, poor facilities conditions, user conflicts, barriers and obstructions and insecurity among others.

To provide a solution to the above pedestrian problems, the present research put forward indicative spatial planning proposals especially; segregation of motor and pedestrian traffic, such as footbridges and footpaths, provision of security and safety measures, use of planning methodology to provide for pedestrian transport facilities (such as research, population factors, standards and modeling), community participation, functional development control, legal enforcement, institutional capacity building, environmental leering to conform to Agenda 21 recommendations, and integrative planning and design to relate pedestrian mode with other modes and land use to enhance accessibility, mobility efficiency and safety urban travel. The present research further recommends areas for further research especially on the extent of pollution caused by motor traffic in Nairobi City among other urban centers.

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