An Evaluation of Circuit Television Cameras in Crime Management: A case Study of Nairobi Central Business District

Abstract
The study focused on the effectiveness of Closed Circuit Television Cameras (CCTV) in Urban
Crime Management in the Central Business District (CBD) of Nairobi. The objective of the
study was to explore the extent and effectiveness of CCTV Cameras in alleviating insecurity
within Nairobi Central Business District.
The theoretical framework looked into the location theory, routine activities theory, situation
crime prevention theory and crime prevention through environmental design to understand how
crime manifests itself and crime prevention measures adopted. The conceptual framework looked
into the Location, Institutional Framework, Resources, Government Policy, Societal value
systems, Community participation and Integrated Centralized Surveillance System that makes
CCTV system effective in an urban environment.
The Methodology used involved CCTV observation, Stratified random sampling of four Strata
namely; Institutions/Businesses, Hotels, Supermarkets and Small Business Enterprise using
CCTV Cameras. Interviews Schedule was used to interview Administrators, ICT Experts in
installation of CCTV Cameras, Law Enforcement agents and urban planners from City Council
of Nairobi.
The study found out that 92.9% of the total respondents had installed CCTV cameras inside the
buildings to offer surveillance inside the buildings. Those connected outside are mainly used to
monitor traffic with a few located in strategic areas for crime prevention. 85.7% of the
respondents indicated that CCTV cameras were effective where installed and location and
coverage of cameras being a critical component.
The study recommends the installation of CCTV cameras on the streets for crime prevention.
There is also the need to involve all stakeholders including community participation to ensure
project sustainability. Finally there is an urgent need for the government to come up with policy
guidelines which sets out standards and conditions to be adopted in the operation of CCTV
cameras schemes.